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Boy In Adaptive Chair With ToyMotor Delays and Disabilities

Here you will find resources, such as handouts, articles, video clips etc. related to supporting families of young children with gross and fine motor delays and associated disabilities. Visit the resource landing pad for information about evidence-based practices and topics; online, print, and video resources, and Virginia-specific guidance.


Click the links below to jump directly to the following sections of this page.
Landing Pad | Archived Webinars | Articles & Handouts | Audio/Video | Websites & Programs


Landing Pad

Motor Disabilities PDF | HTML

Archived Webinars

Talks on Tuesdays

Torticollis: More than Just a Kink in the Neck

VA’s Integrated Training Collaborative

Partnership for People with Disabilities

Presented by Pam Lang and Kim Lephart

This webinar defines torticollis and discusses causes, screening, red flags, and intervention strategies. Click the link above to visit the 2013 Talks on Tuesdays Archive and scroll down until you find the webinar.

Typical Motor Development 0-12 Months

VA’s Integrated Training Collaborative

Partnership for People with Disabilities

Presented by Missy Rose

This webinar describes typical motor development in the first year, red flags, and intervention strategies to encourage motor development. Click the link above to visit the 2012 Talks on Tuesdays Archive and scroll down until you find the webinar.



Articles & Handouts

Cerebral Palsy - NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #2 (external website)

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities

This fact sheet addresses a definition of CP, signs, types, treatment, and tips for parents and teachers.

Kling, A., Campbell, P. H., & Wilcox, J. (2010). Young children with physical disabilities: Caregiver perspectives on assistive technology. Infants & Young Children, 23(3), 169-183.

This study investigated the perspectives of caregivers of young children (average age 26 mo) with physical disabilities and noted the importance of using assistive technology and having early intervention providers who are knowledgeable and can provide training and support to families.

Learn the Signs. Act Early. – Virginia Handouts (external website)

A series of handouts from the CDC’s Act Early campaign have been adapted for Virginia and are available on the Infant & Toddler Connection of Virginia website www.infantva.org. These handouts are available in English and Spanish and cover the following motor disabilities:

  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Other handouts are also available at the link above addressing topics such as autism, fragile X syndrome, hearing loss, etc.

Hanna, K., & Rodger, S. (2002). Towards family-centred practice in paediatric occupational therapy: A review of the literature on parent-therapist collaboration. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 49, 14-24.

This review of the literature addresses parent-therapist collaboration in the contexts of diversity, relationships, planning for intervention and service implementation.

Harris, S. (1996). How should treatments be critiqued for scientific merit? Physical Therapy, 76, 175-181.

This article provides therapists with guidance in how to critique treatments to ensure that they are aligned with evidence-based practices. Alternative therapies are presented, as well as six criteria therapists can use to evaluate the merit of existing or new therapies.

Mahoney, G., Robinson, C., & Perales, F. (2004). Early Motor Intervention: The Need for New Treatment Paradigms. Infants & Young Children, 17(4), 291-300.

The authors of this article discuss recent study results and the larger context of literature related to treatment models for working with young children with motor impairments. According to the authors, recent study results indicated that contemporary approaches to treatment for this population are not meeting needs; this finding is consistent with current literature. The authors call for a renewed exploration of new treatment methods for working with infants and toddlers with motor disabilities.

Physical Therapy: Muscle tone and Hypotonia, Torticollis, and Toe Walking (external website)

This resource addresses each of the conditions mentioned in the title and covers implications for physical therapy.

Spina Bifida - NICHCY Disability Fact Sheet #12 (external website)

National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities

This fact sheet addresses a definition of spina bifida, signs, types, and treatment.

Van Vlimmeren, L. A., Helders, P. J. M., Van Adrichem, & Engelbert, R. H. H. (2006, January). Torticollis and plagiocephaly in infancy: Therapeutic strategies. Pediatric Rehabilitation, 9(1), 40-46.

This study highlights different treatment strategies for some of the most common asymmetries in infancy. Physical therapy, orthotic devices, and surgery are discussed.

Wang, H., Liao, H., & Hsieh, C. (2006). Reliability, sensitivity to change, and responsiveness of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-Second Edition for Children with Cerebral Palsy. Physical Therapy, 86, 1351-1359.

This article addresses the test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the PDMS-2 when used with children ages 2-5 years who have cerebral palsy.




Girl Playing Piano (external website)

This video features a teenaged girl playing beautiful music on the piano. She only began playing 3 years earlier and is not limited at all by the fact that she has no fingers on her right hand.

The Importance of Early Therapy (external website)


This video series features individual child and family stories demonstrating the importance and impact of early physical and occupational therapy.

Toddler Development – Practice Clips

Desired Results Access Project – Video Library

Visit this video library for clips of toddlers participating in typical routines and activities. These videos were produced for use in professional development activities to provide early interventionists, early childhood educators, and other early care and education practitioners opportunities to practice skills such as observation, documentation, and assessment. You’ll find the following toddler clips in the Practice Clips section of the library:

  • Tania Playing in the Yard (3:33) Tania demonstrates a variety of gross motor, communication, and social skills.
  • Nicholas at Story Time (2:39) Nicholas demonstrates a variety of fine motor, social, and early literacy skills.
  • Crystal Moving Around (3:26) Crystal demonstrates a variety of movement, social, and communication skills.
  • Severina Plays Knock Knock (1:31) Severina demonstrates a variety of social, communication, and fine motor skills.

Typical/Atypical Development Comparisons - Videos (external website)


Pathways features the following videos:

  • Is My Baby Okay? (6 mo old comparison for parents) – available in English, Spanish, & Chinese
  • Early Infant Assessment Redefined (6 mo old comparison for professionals)
  • 2 month old Typical/Atypical Development

Tummy Time Videos (external website)


Videos include:

  • Five Essential Tummy Time Moves (available in English & Spanish)
  • Torticollis and the Importance of Tummy Time: Meet Jonathan
  • Tummy Time Troubles
  • The Importance of Tummy Time: Panel Discussion


Websites & Programs

Cerebral Palsy: Hope through Research (external website)

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

This site offers information about cerebral palsy related to causes, types, associated conditions, diagnosis, treatments, and research.

Hypotonia (external website)

This site provides an overview of hypotonia including a definition, symptoms, associated conditions, diagnosis and treatment.

Playtime for Children with Physical Disabilities (external website)

This article discusses the purpose of play, inclusion and adaptation, strategies for families, and play tips for ages newborn-1 year, 1-3 years, and 3-6 years.

What Should you Know about Cerebral Palsy? (external website)

Centers for Disease Control

This site offers information about CP related to facts, causes, screening & diagnosis, data & statistics, research, articles, and links to other websites.



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